Exciting Times for Policy Buffs

By Edo Steinberg

As John Lennon said, life is what happens to you when you’re making other plans. Prof. Barbara Cherry had intended to go on sabbatical during the spring semester. She was going to finish writing a book integrating almost two decades of research, but circumstances led her to indefinitely postpone the sabbatical.

“To make the sabbatical work, I would have needed to make significant progress on the manuscript, or at least my outline for it, before the sabbatical itself started,” Barb says. This part of her plan was disrupted by two deaths in the family and a riding accident which resulted in two broken ribs. “My energies were obviously diverted for a spell from being able to focus on the book prospectus.”

By December, it had become clear to Barb that it would be wiser for her to delay the sabbatical. Not only had she not gotten as far as she would have liked in laying the groundwork for the book, but there were developments in Washington related to the topic of her book. “It became clear that the timing wasn’t going to be right for the book I wanted to work on for two reasons. One, the book would likely not come out soon enough to be an input to the debate on policy issues as I had hoped; and number two,  if I went ahead with it, then the book would not be able to reflect the latest developments that were occurring.”

“In the policymaking world, it’s ‘timing, timing, timing,’” Barb paraphrases the real estate adage. “My energies would be better spent going ahead with pieces of my research, not in book form, but with papers and more active presentations and involvement in Washington itself.”

Barb has taken a few trips to DC lately. She and Telecom lecturer and Indiana State Representative Matt Pierce have had meetings on Capitol Hill and at the FCC about legislation passed in Indiana, which they believed was adverse to consumer interests. In addition, “in January I went to Washington to speak on some panels and before a special task force established by the current president of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissions (NARUC). Meanwhile, in January, my mentor, Steve Wildman, became Chief Economist at the FCC. I’ve also been asked to make a presentation to the FCC’s Technology Transitions Policy Task Force at the end of April.”

“The window of opportunity to get something done is not yet open. It’s coming – soon, but exactly when is unpredictable,” she says. A case before the DC Circuit Court of Appeals concerning whether the FCC has jurisdiction allowing it to make net neutrality rules will have an impact on policy. If the court strikes down the rules, either the FCC would have to reclassify broadband as a telecom service or Congress would have to pass new legislation. Another change in the policy world is the upcoming end of FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski’s term.

“The sabbatical is just postponed until I can better determine the appropriate time to most effectively use it,” says Barb. “Sabbaticals aren’t an entitlement. You don’t just take off. It has to be for an express purpose that is approved by the university.” Not only does she not know when she will take the sabbatical, she doesn’t know what she would use it for yet. “This is part of what the real world is going to tell me, based on activities this year.” She will probably use it to write a book, but spending more time in Washington is also an option.

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Eighth Brown Bag of the Semester – November 9, 2012

Barbara Cherry

Further Erosion of Consumer Protection Remedies for U.S. Telecommunications: Flawed Federal Preemption Under AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion

Deregulatory policies have shifted reliance from industry-specific regulation of telecommunications and broadband access services to economic competition and legal remedies under other bodies of law.  In the U.S. this shift has created legal gaps, eroding availability of consumer protection remedies. In a recent controversial 5-4 decision in AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion (2011), the U.S. Supreme Court further narrowed the scope of available state judicial remedies for consumers of telecommunications services by interpreting the Federal Arbitration Act to enforce a mandatory arbitration clause and a class arbitration waiver in consumer contracts against a challenge of unconscionability.

Barbara’s presentation examined numerous flaws of the majority’s analysis in this case.  The analysis reflects a complexity theory perspective by looking beyond the flaws identified by the dissenting justices and stressing the Court’s failure to consider the systemic effects of its decision to undermine the role of private enforcement mechanisms both generally under the American legal regime and specifically within the telecommunications sector. The analysis also provides insights for other nations by demonstrating the need to understand the systemic impacts of changes in regulatory policy and governance. Illustratively, the Canadian Supreme Court effectively reached the opposite result in Seidel v TELUS Communications Inc.,expressly recognizing the importance of private enforcement mechanisms in the public interest to increase the effectiveness of the British Columbia Business Practices and Consumer Protection Act.

Barbara A. Cherry (Ph.D., Northwestern University; J.D. Harvard Law School) is Professor of Telecommunications at Indiana University. Her research is primarily focused on evaluation of deregulatory policies, governance structures, comparative analysis of infrastructure industries, and framing of analyses from a complexity theory perspective as applied to telecommunications public policy issues.

Barb Cherry’s Athletic Endeavors, Steve Krahnke’s Set Design, and Intellectual Circuit: Law

Barb Cherry’s Athletic Interests: Through the Years

Professor Barb Cherry is well known as an expert in telecommunications policy.  What many do not know is that she is a skilled athlete whose accomplishments in a variety of sports tell quite a story.  She took the time to share some thoughts, memories, and photos of her experiences over the years.

Barb always had an interest in athletics, both as a spectator and participant.  However, in the 60s and 70s, when she was growing up, there were not many opportunities for women to participate in organized sports.  Her athletic activity in her early years was largely limited to playing catch with her father and brother.  It wasn’t until high school that Barb was able to participate in the one organized sport available to young girls: cheerleading.  Then, as a freshman at the University of Michigan, she tried out and made the basketball cheerleading squad.  “At that time, the football cheerleaders were an all male squad.  It wasn’t until my junior year that they even allowed females as cheerleaders for the football team.  I tried out and made the first squad of women that cheered in the fall of 1974.  Even then, the two squads were separate and did not integrate until many years after I left.”  The only other opportunities for organized sports for Barb at the collegiate level were intramural sports like volleyball.

After graduation from Michigan, she went to Harvard to study law.  It was at this point that she was able to pursue her fascination with horses and riding.  She bought her first horse during her last year in law school, as a graduation gift to herself.  She began to ride competitively in an activity called eventing, which involves three different sports: dressage, cross country jumping, and stadium jumping.  It was during this time that she met her husband, who was participating in an event called hunting.

After getting married and moving to Chicago, Barb had to put her passion on hold, as the logistics of keeping a horse and training were too difficult.  Unable to get rid of the athletic itch, Barb started working out and lifting weights at a health club on the north side of Chicago.  There a trainer introduced her to the world of bodybuilding.  “I was attracted to bodybuilding because it is actually a lifestyle.  It involves aspects of dieting, nutrition, and training over months of time.”  After training for a period of time, Barb was persuaded to compete in two shows and she won both of them, competing in the heavyweight class.

Her foray into the world of bodybuilding came to an end when she was able to return to horse training when she joined the faculty of the Department of Telecommunication at Michigan State University, after completing her PhD in communication at Northwestern University.  She has since decided to focus on dressage, sometimes referred to as ‘Horse Ballet.’  The ultimate goal of dressage is to train the horse to smoothly respond to the rider’s requests in a relaxed and almost effortless way.

Dressage is much more than that to Barb.  Since working with her current horse, Livingston, Barb describes this type of horse training as an art, sport, and intellectual challenge.  “I have learned more as an athlete with this activity than anything else I have done.  It is truly an integration of mind and body, not only with yourself, but with another species.  When I am riding, I get into a state of flow, almost as if there is no passage of time.  I’ve never done anything that has allowed me to completely get out of my head like this.”  Barb has achieved much success in dressage competition over the years as an amateur, many times in direct competition with professionals.  Now, Barb looks forward to going to Florida for the summer to continue her training with Livingston.

Check out this short video detailing Barb’s past athletic adventures.

Steve Krahnke’s Set Design Work at BHS North

It’s likely that you’ve thought of Steve Krahnke as a documentary producer, a professor, an arts administrator, or even a tie collector, but it turns out that he’s almost always been a set designer at heart. When Steve was 14 years old, his parents

Steve’s set design for last year’s production of “Anything Goes”

introduced him to a professional set designer, Jim Ely, who offered him a summer job. Steve took to the craft right away, and it’s something he’s been doing ever since. “I’ve mainly done it purely for fun, and a lot of what I know about production has been informed by my experience in set design,” Steve says.

Steve took a couple of set design courses in college, but by then he’d already been creating sets for years. When he went on to become a theater administrator, people there knew of his background and started asking him for help with set design. About 10 years ago, Franchesca Sobrer, drama teacher at Bloomington North, found out through a mutual friend that Steve had experience in set design and asked him to help with the spring musical. It started out as a fairly simple undertaking. “It was sort of a collaboration with their art department,” Steve explains. “Then I proposed meeting on Monday afternoon after school to start a tech club so the students could work on the things I design.”

Now, the projects for the musical productions are complex and often labor-intensive. The tech club, along with 40 or so drama students and parents, hold work weekends to complete the designs leading up to each production. “We’re capable of producing pretty sophisticated stuff,” Steve says. The stage at North is a large one, and the sets are often designed to move apart and reconfigure to form a new scene. Steve takes some of the time leading up to opening night to train the stage crews for highly coordinated efforts necessary to move the set properly and smoothly.

For Steve, one of the benefits of his time spent working on the sets at North is the satisfaction that he’s teaching the students how to succeed in their craft. “It isn’t really me doing it for them; it’s them doing it for themselves. I just provide them with the means to do it,” he explains. In fact, many of Steve’s collaborators from Bloomington North become students at IU, and he finds several of them in his classes each year.

Their current production, Cabaret, debuted over the weekend, and there’s still time to catch the remaining shows. Tickets are available for Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, and the production begins at 7:30 at Bloomington High School North.

Intellectual Circuits, Part 2: Law

The department offers a joint MA / MS (Telecom) – JD degree with the law school and also many Telecom graduate students take law classes.  Here are some perspectives shared by graduate students and faculty.

What is telecommunications law?  According to current MA-JD student Matthew Pische,  “it as an amalgam of all the statutes, common law precedents, and regulatory actions that affect the creation and dissemination of messages by electronic means, which encompasses both wired and wireless transmission of sound, images, and data.”  MA-JD alumnus and incoming PhD student Ryland Sherman notes that, while telecommunications law is tricky to define, its precedents and statutes find their origin in a number of areas. Ryland suggests a horse analogy to understand the ways in which all other types of law have been applied to communication: “While there is no legal subdivision focusing specifically on horses, many legal disciplines evolving independently of the horse must be applied to it.”

Professor Mike McGregor says that the joint degree program between Law and Telecom is a very beneficial one. “It’s produced some fine students over the years,” he says. Mike adds that the location of the Federal Communications Law Journal in the law school have added to the interest. Both Mike and fellow faculty member Barb Cherry have taught courses over in the law school on topics related to Telecom.

For both Matt and Ryland, one big draw of the dual degree is that it offers a competitive edge for internships and jobs. “The Telecom department provides an understanding of why telecommunications systems and practices have developed the way they have, how the legal rules both influence and respond to these practices, and what social effects new or different telecommunications regimes may have,” Matt explains. Ryland adds, “Competition with other very qualified individuals is fierce, so seeking out a relevant internship early in your career, coupled with your knowledge, allows you to distinguish yourself and begin to build a professional network.”

Ryland adds that even those not seeking the dual degree can still try out a couple of relevant courses within the law school. “They offer non-law students the opportunity to enroll and be graded separately with due consideration to a lack of general legal knowledge,” he explains.

Recommended Courses: Constitutional Law II, Communications Law, Intellectual Property Licensing, Internet Law, Entertainment Law, Copyright Law

Brown Bag

Reflections on the Telecom Graduate Program

Panel:  Harmeet Sawhney (Director of Graduate Studies), Katie Birge (PhD student), Sanja Kapidzic (MA student), Danqing Liu (MS student), and Travis Ross (PhD student)

The session started with a presentation by Harmeet, where he revisited the points he had discussed during the orientation week last fall with the incoming class.  After the presentation, Katie, Sanja, Danqing, and Travis commented on it and also offered their own reflections.  Thereafter the session was opened for a general discussion.

Credits

Nicky Birge: Steve Krahnke’s Set Design Work at BHS North, and Intellectual Circuits, Part 2: Law

Nicky Lewis:  Barb Cherry’s Athletic Interests

Go Pack Go, CV Workshop, Justin’s Cycling Trials and Barb Cherry’s Brown Bag

Annie’s Green Bay Packers Win Super Bowl

It’s no secret that Professor Annie Lang loves the Green Bay Packers. In fact, she is more than a fan. She is an actual shareholder of the Green Bay Packers organization. The Packers are the only non-profit, community owned franchise in American professional sports. Since 1998, Annie has owned one share of stock, making her a part owner of the team. While she has seen the Packers win four Super Bowls in her lifetime and the Ice Bowl at the age of 6, this year was the first time the Packers have won since Annie became a shareholder.

Annie watched the game at home with a few friends and family. There was one requirement for those in attendance: a dress code.  “If you didn’t wear Green Bay Packers gear, you had to borrow some.” While she usually knits during football games, she was too nervous this time around. Annie did carry on many text conversations with friends and family who were thinking of her during the game. With a final score of Packers, 31 and Steelers, 25, she was concerned about a Steelers comeback the whole game. “No one was as nervous as me.” After it was all over, Annie received congratulatory texts and phone calls from friends, many of whom were fans of other teams. She was in contact with her daughter during the entire game. And for good reason. “My daughter will get my share of stock in the organization. It has to go to a first degree relative or it goes back to the company.  She’s the bigger fan.”

Cheers, Annie!

Professor Nicole Martins Holds CV Workshop for PhD Students

On Tuesday the department’s PhD students had the opportunity to get advice and feedback from Professor Nicole Martins on how to put together a CV and make the best impression on job search committees. “It occurred to me that many of our students simply may not know what makes a CV ‘good’ or ‘bad,'” Nicole explained. On suggestion from PhD student Lindsay Ems, who served as the grad student rep on the search committee, Nicole decided to put together the workshop. About ten students attended the session, where they were given the opportunity to look at sample CVs from recent PhD students and discuss the strong points and areas for improvement in each case.

Nicole focused on what content to include and in what manner. In constructing the best CV, she advised the workshop participants to have an idea of what type of job would suit them best. “A teaching CV is going to look different than a research CV,” Nicole explained, “so figuring out what kind of job you want first is key.” Nicole also suggested that students keep their CVs up-to-date. “Students struggle when they wait until the last minute to write them up. The last minute approach results in your forgetting a lot of stuff that should be included,” she added.

Nicole’s biggest piece of advice to graduate students was to take more pride in little accomplishments. “Stop being modest. If you don’t put down an award because it was only a departmental thing, you are doing yourself a huge disservice. Search committees are not expecting a graduate student to have a million dollar grant from the NIH, but a couple hundred bucks to fund a study or dissertation shows promise,” she said.

The workshop concluded with questions for Nicole about each student’s current CV, and that feedback was provided to those who stuck around. Due to the success of this workshop (students stayed around well after the expected end time), Nicole plans to hold additional ones in the near future. If you missed the workshop this week or if you still have questions, you can email Nicole at nicomart@indiana.edu at any point in the semester.

Cycling Trials with Justin

As a master’s student at Texas Tech, Justin Keene lived 4 miles away from campus, and he picked up cycling as a sensible way to commute. Now, as a doctoral student in Bloomington, Justin cycles with the teams of IU’s collegiate cyclers. Currently cycling with the Cs (teams are grouped by letter and compete based on distances and race sizes), he practices with the team on Sundays. “Moving here was like moving to a cycling Mecca,” Justin explains.

Justin’s bike set up for indoor training.

Along with training as part of the collegiate team, Justin has also spent the past 4 weeks participating in a series of cycling trials for a study at the School of Healh, Physical Education, and Recreation. “One of my strengths is time trials, so I thought it’d be easy, but I didn’t know it would be three sets of trials in a row,” he explains. The trials consisted of an initial test to measure oxygen levels and proceeded to 3 sets of 4k time trials, where the researchers drew blood in between sets. Justin didn’t mind the finger pricks, but he says the trials were difficult because the machines didn’t show distance, so the pacing was entirely based on feel. “Eventually, you learn to pace yourself without visual aids,” he says. The trials were also a way to contribute to the research of other scholars. “It was fun because I could apply some science to the cycling, but I didn’t always have to,” Justin says. As an added twist to the trials, Justin was told he needed to cycle as hard as he could, but he was allowed to pick how much resistance the pedals bore. “It was kind of like a choose your own adventure,” he explains. He also adds that the trials were tamer than others he’d heard of: in some cases, balloons are put down athlete’s throats to examine the lungs during rigorous exercise, and Justin (thankfully) didn’t have to do that in the name of science.

The cycling season officially begins in three weeks and runs until Little 500 weekend at IU. Graduate students cannot compete in the famous race, so Justin instead advises, mentors, and trains with two teams on campus he helps coach. “Cycling is a stress relief. It provides a lot of balance for me. Grad school is quick to take too much of your time, and it’s nice to get a distraction in the form of a 2 hour ride,” Justin says. “It takes discipline to plan your schedule to fit both.”

Brown Bag Presentation

Professor Barbara Cherry was the featured speaker at the brown bag.

How Elevation of Corporate Free Speech Rights Affects Legality of Network Neutrality

Abstract:  This presentation is based on a research paper written for the 18th Biennial International Telecommunications Conference held in 2010. This paper discusses how consideration of free speech rights form a legal basis in addition to economic rights for establishing baseline obligations on broadband Internet access providers. Importantly, establishing baseline obligations may give rise to conflicting constitutional claims, pitting the economic and free speech rights of individuals against those of corporate interests.  Resolving such conflicts further complicates the FCC’s task in both designing and implementing legally sustainable network neutrality rules to govern practices of broadband Internet access service providers.

In Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010), the U.S. Supreme Court overruled a century of precedent to hold that corporations must be treated identically to natural persons with regard to political speech.  This presentation discusses how Citizens United, by elevating the constitutional free speech rights of corporations, diminishes the federal government’s ability to protect consumer interests with regard to network neutrality

Random Photos of the Week

Professor Ron Osgood is not entering a beauty pageant.  However, one of his former students, Derek Quinn, is currently an intern for the Miss Universe Organization in New York City.  Derek was aware of Ron’s documentary work of the Vietnam War and passed along the sash that Miss Vietnam wore in this year’s pageant.  Enjoy!

Credits

Nicky Lewis: Go Pack Go and Ron’s Vietnam photos

Katie Birge: Justin’s Cycling Trials, CV Workshop, Brown Bag

Steve Krahnke’s Ties, Matt Pierce’s Collectibles, Kiersten and the FCLJ, and CMCL’s Mary Gray

Steve Krahnke’s Ties

If you’ve ever prepared for a classroom lecture, deciding on what tie to wear may not have topped your list of priorities. But for Professor Steve Krahnke, the big tie decision is a regular part of his morning routine. Steve collects bright and interesting designer ties, and he never wears the same tie more than once a semester.

Professor Steve Krahnke displays some of his ties in his graduate seminar. Photo credit: Ryan Newman

Steve’s collection started off with a gift from his wife. He was leafing through the pages of a Metropolitan Museum of Art catalog when he spotted an interesting tie that his wife later purchased for him as a gift. The tie, an unusual green, orange, black, and white piece by designer Gene Meyer, has since then gathered plenty of compliments and some good discussion. And for Steve, interesting ties aren’t bold fashion statements—they’re conversation starters. “The ties have broken the ice for me so many times in business meetings,” he says.

Since picking up his first Gene Meyer tie about 20 years ago, Steve has expanded his collection and added another designer, Chris Coleman. There is a tie for every occasion. “I have one I call my ‘Point of View’ tie, I have a rhetoric tie, which has just a bunch of words, I have some that are just beautiful, and I have plenty of Christmas ties,” Steve remarks. This fall Steve put his ties on display for his graduate class, exhibiting over 50 of his ties.

For Steve, the ties send an important message to his students. “I don’t think of it as collecting, really,” he says. “We spend so much time being generic, so I think there’s something to be said about trying to be a person in a tie.” Steve started wearing ties on a regular basis when he began teaching for the first time. “For me, it’s a sign of respect for the students,” he adds. Steve encourages his students to dress up for in-class presentations. They don’t often wear ties, but they still enjoy getting to see a different one of his in class each day. Steve has an elaborate system in his closet to keep track of which ties he’s already worn to lecture so as to avoid wearing the same one more than once. He also has a tie that closely resembles a Powerpoint template, which he uses on the day he wears that particular tie.

Some of Steve's designer ties on display. Photo credit: Ryan Newman

The ties can be difficult to find, and Steve relies on eBay to find the ones he wants. He checks the site every few weeks to see what’s available, but it’s also not uncommon to be outbid for the ties. In fact, one of Steve’s friends in the IU English department also collects Gene Meyer ties, and they occasionally spot ties online that they’re both looking for. “Sometimes we find ourselves competing for the same ties in a bidding war on eBay,” Steve says.

Despite the size of his current tie collection, Steve still maintains that his first Gene Meyer tie from 20 years ago is the best one. Steve says it gets the most compliments, and everyone agrees that it is one unusually great tie. “I thought it was the coolest tie I’d ever seen, and I guess it’s true,” he says.

Objects in Offices, Segment 3: Matt Pierce

If you couldn’t already tell from the collectibles, books and memorabilia, Professor Matt Pierce is a definite amateur radio enthusiast.  His office contains many items that take you back to the golden age of radio.  He has a true appreciation for the beauty and technology behind the radio, before our lives were inundated with texting, Skyping and Facebooking.

Matt has had a passion for tinkering with things ever since he was little.  Eventually, he received his first amateur radio operator’s license his freshman year in high school and never looked back.  Working up through the ranks, he eventually certified as an extra class operator, the highest level of amateur radio license.  In addition to acting as the faculty advisor for the IU Amateur Radio Club, Matt is in the process of collecting parts for the rebuilding of one of his most prized possessions, his 1936 Philco radio.

Matt took time out to demonstrate his Morse code practice oscillator and show his Philco radio, a radio that was likely listened to during Franklin Roosevelt’s fireside chats, World War II and more.  In addition to the radio itself, Matt also has the original owner’s manual, diagrams and service bulletins.  His goal is to bring the radio back to life so that it works properly.  For this process, he offers some words of advice.  “If you ever buy one of these things at a garage sale, do not run home and plug it in to see if it works.  Almost always, the electronics inside have gone bad and you could blow out the transformer.”  He explained that the fixing up process is one of intricate detail.  Most important to Matt is what the radio represents: a time when families used to gather around a single piece of Americana for information and entertainment.

Kiersten Kamman Edits for FCLJ

Many of our graduate students spend time writing papers with hopes of submitting them to journals or conferences, but one student, Kiersten Kamman, actually gets to tackle the job of editing for a journal. Kiersten, who is currently working towards a joint degree in Telecommunications and Law, is the Senior Articles Editor for the Federal Communications Law Journal (FCLJ), housed on IU’s campus at the Maurer School of Law. Kiersten’s job involves reviewing and selecting the content for three annual publications and sending them to article editors.

Graduate student Kiersten Kamman edits for the Federal Communications Law Journal.

The FCLJ is entirely student-run with one main faculty advisor and oversight from the Federal Communications Bar Association. IU Telecom’s Professor Barb Cherry has helped with the journal in the past. The journal publishes articles on communications law, intellectual property law and IT, and related topics. Around 70 students on staff review legal and policy analyses, papers on FCC decisions, and social scientific articles with policy implications. “Net neutrality is a hot topic right now, and we’re currently working with an essay about using social science research to make policy. We try to stay at the cutting edge of policy decisions,” Kiersten says.

For Kiersten, her work in the Telecommunications Department has added a unique approach to her studies in law. “Having a strong background in the academic social scientific side has helped me understand a lot of policy decisions that have been made,” she says. Kiersten also spent last summer interning at the Federal Communications Commission headquarters in Washington, D.C., where she realized that having knowledge of both Law and Telecommunications really helped. “I worked on a lot of children and the media issues, and there policy research is based on social scientific data, so I was glad I could help,” she says.

Kiersten hopes to further make the most of her dual degree, aiming to head to D.C. eventually. “I’d really like to work for the FCC or for a communications law firm in the area,” she says of her future.

Mary Gray (CMCL) Brown Bag Presentation

This past Friday, Professor Mary Gray from the Department of Communications and Culture presented at the Brown Bag co-sponsored by the Rob Kling Center for Social Informatics and the Department of Telecommunications.

Beyond “Online/Offline”: Information Access, Public Spaces and Queer Youth Visibility in the Rural U.S.

Abstract: Drawing on her nearly two years work in rural parts of Kentucky and in small towns along its borders, this talk discusses how lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and questioning (LGBTQ) youth and their allies make use of social media and local resources to combat the marginalization faced in their own communities and their absence in popular representations of gay and lesbian life and the agendas of national gay and lesbian advocacy groups.  This talk explores how boundary publics—visibility strategies that blur offline/online experience—act as responses to “digital inequality” against increasing privatization of information access and government-mandated censoring of information at educational institutions in the rural United States.

Random Thought

“There are unpleasant aspects to the job.”  (Found on a scratch paper in Professor Annie Lang’s office.  Published with permission.)

Credits

Nicky Lewis: Matt Pierce’s Collectibles, CMCL’s Mary Gray

Katie Birge: Steve Krahnke’s Ties, Kiersten and the FCLJ

Special Thanks

Ryan Newman: Photos of Steve Krahnke’s Ties