Julien Mailland, Department of Telecommunications, Media School
From two-sided pricing to gated communities: Welcome back to the eighties
In recent years, a number of internet service providers around the world have attempted to implement two-sided pricing models within the networks. Under such models, ISPs would charge both the end-users for access to content of their choice, but also the content providers at stake for access to the end-users. Content providers who would not pay would see their content either blocked by the last-mile ISP, or relegated to a slow lane called a “dirt road.”
So far, the economic and legal literature have focused on the negative implications of such models from the standpoint of innovation. This talk takes a different perspective and argues that implementation of two-sided pricing models by retail, last-mile ISPs would lead to fragmentation of the Internet and the creation of gated communities at the level of each last-mile ISP implementing such model. That situation would be reminiscent of the online landscape of the eighties, where users got on AOL, Compuserve, Prestel or Minitel, rather than on an interconnected network of networks. I further argue that this is an undesirable outcome for two reasons. First, such balkanization of the Internet would prevent users from reaping the benefits of network externalities that emerged when the Web drew people to the Internet. Second, it would reduce the amount of information available to each user, which is a negative from the standpoint of the American political and international-relations theories of the marketplace of ideas and the free flow of information, both of which historically underpinned the development of the open, interconnected internet.
Mona Malacane, PhD student, and Sean Connolly, PhD Student, Department of Telecommunications, Media School
Women’s Role in Action Movie Trailers: A Content Analysis Examining Sexual and Agentic Portrayals, 1982-2013
A content analysis of 155 theatrical trailers for action movies was conducted to examine the frequency and nature of women’s role in promotional materials and how this role has evolved over the past 30 years. The results show that fewer women were included in early action movie trailers (i.e. before 2000). When women were observed in action movie trailers, they were often physically sexualized and, in later years, more likely to be shown participating in the action elements of the trailer. Female agency and physical sexualization peaked at the turn of the century and has been followed by several blockbuster female-lead action films. Implications for how women in action movie trailers can affect box office sales are discussed.
Nic Matthews, PhD Candidate, Department of Telecommunications, Media School
Human conflict and cooperation—although markedly different—can emerge from similar contexts. The current talk discusses how two branches of research seek to identify and understand the triggers that crystallize these opposing outcomes. One branch observes individual differences that influence aggression-related outcomes following violent video game play. The other branch investigates the reciprocal relationship between one’s moral cognition and the morally laden messages present in games.
Nicky Lewis, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Telecommunications, Media School
Social Comparison in Reality Television
Reality television programming has experienced tremendous growth in the last decade. By combining relatively low production costs and a quick turnaround for broadcast, these types of programs have increased in popularity worldwide. However, what makes these programs engaging to media audiences is still uncertain. Although several researchers have explored the relevant features of reality programs and viewers’ perceptions of those programs, little is known about the psychological processes at work amongst the viewers themselves. Informed by social comparison theory, this presentation will demonstrate how directional social comparisons with cast members influence emotional responses to reality television programming, including enjoyment.
Nicky Lewis (M.A., Indiana University) is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Telecommunications at Indiana University. Her research interest involves media psychology, especially as it applies to consumption behavior.
Jessica Myrick, Assistant Professor, Journalism, Indiana University
Putting a Human Face on Cold-Hard-Facts: Effects of Personalizing Social Issues on Perceptions of Issue Importance
This presentation will discuss a study that tested the influence of personalization (moving testimony from ordinary citizens) on the reception of television news reports about social issues. The data (N=80) from this mixed-design experiment offer evidence that personalized news stories evoked greater levels of empathy toward and identification with people who are affected by social issues, which in turn increased perceived importance of those issues. The effects of personalization persisted even a week after viewing the stories. Moreover, path analyses revealed that involvement with ordinary citizens in the news was a catalyst for understanding how men (but not women) assign importance to stories. The findings imply that the goal of advancing civic engagement with social issues could be served by employing personalized story formats.
Ozen Bas, PhD student, and Betsi Grabe, Professor, Telecommunications, Indiana University
The Participatory Potential of Emotional Personalization in News
News media are frequently implicated in examinations of citizen apathy and low voter turnout. Large survey data sets are often used to do diagnostics at the macro level, testing the effects of news consumption on political participation in general terms, without much effort to parse variance in terms of the content and form of news messages. The experiment reported here tests how emotional personalization of news messages might influence political participation intent. The data (N=80) provide support for the idea that being exposed to news that features emotional testimonies of people with first-hand experience of social issues encourages political participation. Unlike most existing research would suggest, education-based variance in participation intent did not emerge. Taken together, these findings offer evidence that message characteristics such as personalization of social issues can elicit political engagement from news users, which in turn has potential to revitalize the public sphere.
Annie Lang, Distinguished Professor, Department of Telecommunications, Indiana University
Processing Substance Cues and Prevention Messages: Differences in Biological Responses and Motivated Cognition
This talk is about how the dynamic interaction of our perceptual, motivational, emotional, and cognitive systems when viewing substance cues and prevention public service announcements. Interactive effects of individual differences, age, use, and symbol system of information presentation are discussed.
Barbara Cherry, Professor, Julian Mailland, Assistant Professor, and Matt Pierce, Lecturer, Department of Telecommunications, Indiana University
IU Telecom goes to Washington: Influencing Federal Policy-making on Network Neutrality
Given the decision of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals in Verizon v. FCC in January 2014, the FCC now faces the legal challenge of how to impose sustainable legal obligations for network openness on broadband Internet access service providers to address concerns underlying the vacated no blocking and no unreasonable discrimination rules. The FCC established a proceeding, the Open Internet Access NPRM, in May 2014, to consider whether it should seek to create obligations under section 706 authority in conjunction with Title I jurisdiction or reclassification under Title II.
On Sept. 12, 2014, Barbara Cherry, Julien Mailland, and Matt Pierce of the Department of Telecommunications traveled to Washington, D.C. to present research and discuss Indiana state legislative activities in ex parte meetings with FCC staff members of both Chairman Wheeler and Commissioner Rosenwercel with regard to the Open Internet Access NPRM. On Sept. 13, Barbara and Julien also presented their research paper, Toward Sustainable Network-Openness Obligations on Broadband in the U.S.: Surviving Providers’ First Amendment Challenges, at the 42nd Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy, held in Arlington, Virginia. This paper examines anticipated legal challenges to future FCC rules to impose network openness obligations on broadband Internet access services providers pursuant to the Open Internet Access NPRM, comparing the likely outcomes if the FCC’s authority is based on the exercise of authority under Title II or under section 706 in conjunction with Title I. The analysis provides litigation advice for how the FCC should exercise its authority given evaluation of differential legal uncertainties arising from these two approaches.
For this week’s T600, Barbara, Julien and Matt discuss not only the substance of the research and Indiana legislative activities presented in Washington, D.C., but also the complex web of policy-making processes and politics within which these presentations are being made within the network neutrality debate. They will reveal the policy battle that is raging largely outside of public view and how the issues being debated are misunderstood by the media reporting on that battle. We draw practical lessons on how to bridge theory and practice.